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The Concept of Undertaking in Education and Public Health Systems

Maria Kleis, Phedon Nicolaides


I. Introduction Member States finance public universities or research establishments and hospitals. Since public measures only constitute State aid when the recipient is classified as an undertaking, the question whether the above-mentioned establishments are covered by the concept of an undertaking is crucial for the application of Article 87(1) EC. At a first glance, the answer to this question seems to be simple. One just has to apply the definitio


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