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In light of the financial crisis, a number of Member States decided from 2008 to implement measures intended to remedy the serious economic disturbance and maintain the stability and proper functioning of financial markets in the European Union. In the period between 1 October 2008 and 1 October 2011, the European Commission approved aid to the financial sector for an overall amount of € 4506,5 billion (36.7 % of EU GDP).

EStAL 3|2013 ING: Summa


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