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Ex Post State Aid Evaluation in Environmental Aid

Hans Friederiszick, Ela Głowicka, Linda Gratz, Simone Lünenbürger, Andreas Rosenfeld


Keywords: State aid ex post evaluation, Environmental aid, econometric estimation methods, evaluation plans

The obligation to carry out an ex post evaluation of certain State aid measures was introduced in the European Union in 2014. This obligation represents an important element of the broader State Aid Modernisation initiative of DG Competition. In this article, we offer guidance, both from a legal and an economic perspective, on when an ex post evaluation is required, which methods are available and which methods are actually considered by Member States. More specifically, we propose a ‘traffic light system’, supporting a self-assessment of whether an ex post evaluation is required for a specific measure or not. Furthermore, we review the 24 evaluation plans which were approved by the European Commission by August 2018, with respect to the proposed approaches to the measurement of direct and indirect effects, appropriateness and proportionality. We find that the most common method considered by Member States in their evaluation plans is the econometric estimation of differences-in-differences.
Keywords: State aid ex post evaluation; Environmental aid; Econometric estimation methods; Evaluation plans.

Dr Hans W Friederiszick (Director at E.CA Economics and Research Fellow ESMT), Dr Linda Gratz (Principal at E.CA Economics), Dr Simone Lünenbürger (Senior Counsel at Redeker Sellner Dahs, Brussels) and Dr Andreas Rosenfeld (Partner at Redeker Sellner Dahs, Brussels) are co-authors of the research report on the topic commissioned by UBA and BMU in 2018. Dr Ela Głowicka (Associate Principal at E.CA Economics) contributed to the methodological guidance for the evaluation in the field of State aid while working at DG Competition. We thank Richard Kamp for research assistance.


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