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The Interplay between the European Commission, National Authorities and National Courts in State Aid Law:

An Attempt to Cut the Gordian Knot

Ranjana Andrea Achleitner


Keywords: private enforcement, eState-Wiki, GBER, standstill obligation, unlawful aid

The interplay between the Commission, national courts and national authorities in the system of State aid enforcement poses a number of challenges and potential conflicts, which, in the end – as undoubtedly showcased by the Eesti Pagar judgment– also put the aid beneficiaries under great pressure in the context of the General Block Exemption Regulation. This article attempts to identify the most important problems and challenges related to the division of roles between the institutions in State aid law, with the intention of proposing solutions that provide legal certainty for relevant undertakings, the national authorities and national courts. The article also discusses the fact that despite the growing number of private enforcement litigation, the national courts have rarely concluded that unlawful aid was granted and rarely awarded remedies. The purpose of this paper is to provide proposals for more effective private enforcement. Finally, the article pays particular attention to the limited use of cooperation tools and suggests an update of these mechanisms.
Keywords: private enforcement; eState-Wiki; GBER; standstill obligation; unlawful aid

Ranjana Andrea Achleitner is post doctoral researcher at the Institut for European Law, University Linz, Austria. For correspondence: <>.


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