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The search returned 7 results.

Commission’s Decisional Practice on State Aid to Railway Companies for Transport Coordination journal article

Germano Guglielmi, Stefania Bello

European State Aid Law Quarterly, Volume 19 (2020), Issue 3, Page 297 - 313

The concept of coordination of transport set forth by Article 93 TFEU is actually very vague. The Railway Guidelines provide guidance and criteria for the interpretation of this concept and the direct application to railway undertakings of Article 93 TFEU. This article focuses on the Commission Decisions concerning transport coordination, which directly or indirectly concern railway transport. In particular, the research aims at reconstructing State aid measures adopted between 2008 and 2019, assessed by the Commission pursuant either to Article 93 TFEU or to both Article 93 TFEU and the Railway Guidelines. The main purposes of this article are, firstly, to analyse how the Commission applied and interpreted this specific exception and, secondly, to assess whether the Railway Guidelines are sufficiently exhaustive or, on the contrary, they should be updated and/or extended in light of a potential revision under evaluation by the Commission. Keywords: transport coordination, Article 93 TFEU, Railway Guidelines


The European Green Deal and State Aid: journal article

The Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection and Energy Towards the Future

Steven Verschuur, Cecilia Sbrolli

European State Aid Law Quarterly, Volume 19 (2020), Issue 3, Page 284 - 289

The European Green Deal is the prelude and the foundation of a daunting, but necessary, environmental-centric industrial revolution. EU legislation has obviously dealt with environmental policies in the past, but the European Green Deal is a far-reaching project that will require unprecedented investments. The transition envisioned in the European Green Deal will also require amendments to a wide variety of existing EU legislation and policies, including in the field of State aid. The Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection and energy (EEAG), in force until the end of 2021, are the legal framework in force to assess environmental State aid. This raises the question whether these Guidelines are a suitable instrument to achieve the objectives of the European Green Deal. This paper is the first of a series that will discuss the interplay between existing State aid rules and policy on the one hand and the European Green Deal on the other. It will provide a broader introduction to the European Green Deal and its envisaged means of financing and will discuss the application of the incentive effect to the State aid assessment of national support measures to achieve objectives of the European Green Deal. Keywords: EU Green Deal, Environmental and Energy Guidelines, incentive effect, environmental targets, financing



Implementation of the Green Deal: journal article

Integrating Environmental Protection Requirements into the Design and Assessment of State Aid

Simone Lünenbürger, Clemens Holtmann, Juliette Delarue

European State Aid Law Quarterly, Volume 19 (2020), Issue 4, Page 418 - 429

The Commission has announced its intention to revise a series of State aid rules (GBER and a number of guidelines) in light of the Green Deal by the end of 2021. At the same time, the Commission is examining how competition policy can be more effective to combat climate change and contribute to the protection of the environment. This article demonstrates that environmental protection requirements can and must be integrated into the definition and implementation of the Union's State aid policy, not only when it comes to environmental aid. Article 11 TFEU provides for a legal obligation on the Commission to integrate environmental protection requirements into the definition and implementation of Union policies, including State aid policy. It is shown how this obligation can be integrated into the traditional assessment scheme, notably under Article 107 (3)(c) TFEU and how it can be broken down into concrete compatibility assessment criteria. Keywords: Green Deal; environmental protection; Article 11 TFEU; State aid policy; guidelines


The Balancing Test for Operating Aid for Airports under the Aviation Guidelines 2014 journal article

The Role of Economic and Financial Analysis and Evidence

Kristina Schattat, Natalia Budzynska

European State Aid Law Quarterly, Volume 17 (2018), Issue 3, Page 399 - 411

The compatibility assessment of a State aid measure is about balancing its negative effects on trade and competition in the common market with its positive effects in terms of a contribution to the achievement of well-defined objectives of common interest. One key element for the Commission’s so-called ‘balancing test’ of operating aid under the 2014 Aviation Guidelines is an ex-ante business plan ensuring that the company managing the airport will be able to cover all operational costs as of 2024 at the latest. Another key element for the assessment is the analysis of the catchment area of concerned airports. This article discusses the role of financial and economic analysis and evidence in this balancing test. The Commission Decisions published so far on this type of aid have not included many technical details about the economic and financial analysis of the Commission’s assessment. Neither has the Commission published specific guidance for the Member States on these elements. This article aims to shed light on these aspects by not only reviewing the decisional practice of the Commission but by sharing the practical experience of the authors with helping Member States to receive the Commission’s approval for granting operating aid to regional airports. Keywords: Balancing Test; Compatibility Assessment; Economic and Financial Analysis; Operating Aid; Airport; Infrastructure; Aviation Guidelines 2014; Notification; Business Plan; Operating Funding Gap; Cost of Capital; Catchment Area.


Public Aid to Airports as a Compensation for the Provision of Services of General Economic Interest journal article

Michele Giannino, Federich Romby

European State Aid Law Quarterly, Volume 17 (2018), Issue 3, Page 338 - 352

The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the European Commission’s approach in assessing whether compensation awarded to airports for the provision of Services of General Economic Interest (SGEIs) complies with the EU State aid rules. The article analyses the defensive strategies open for national authorities to claim that airports public service compensation packages are compatible with the internal market. In that regard, the article considers the Altmark doctrine and the compatibility conditions for the application of the SGEI exception in Article 106 TFEU. Then it critically compares the strong and weak points of each of these strategies and also dwells on which factors national authorities have to adduce to prove the compatibility of airport aid. Bearing in mind the difficulties for national authorities to satisfy all the conditions for the application of the Altmark doctrine, the article suggests that the SGEI exception should be the optimal strategy to obtain regulatory clearance of public service compensation to airport.


Operating Aids to Airports: a Review of the Commission’s Decisions on the Application of the 2014 Guidelines journal article

Michele Giannino, Federich Romby

European State Aid Law Quarterly, Volume 16 (2017), Issue 4, Page 567 - 581

By the 2014 Aviation Guidelines the European Commission introduced a brand-new regime for airport operating aid whereby this type of public aid can be lawfully granted if it satisfies certain compatibility conditions. The article reviews the decisional practice developed by the Commission on the application of the competition conditions for airport operating aid, highlighting the circumstances under which such aid may be found to be incompatible. Arguably, the so-called ‘duplication argument’ plays a key role in the Commission assessment of the compatibility of airport operating aid. Indeed, the only two negative decisions so far made by the Commission were based on the consideration that the aid led to the duplication of unviable airport facilities. In contrast, the Commission cleared aid awarded to airports that met demand for air transport services that was not satisfied by the nearby airports. Keywords: Operating Aid; Airport; 2014 Guidelines; Commission Decision.

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